Q. Zane Rhodes II, President, Zachary Browne, and Steven Cuffle, Newpoint Fuel, LLC, USA, element utilising amine vegetation and catalytic oxygen removing for LNG pretreatment.
In 1999, Newpoint Fuel, LLC put in its first pure fuel treating plant, and has been designing, constructing, putting in, and working fuel treating and purification vegetation since.
Two applied sciences that profit the LNG business are amine treating and catalytic oxygen removing. Amine vegetation take away hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from fuel streams utilising a regenerable amine solvent. The catalyst oxygen removing system converts oxygen to CO2 and water utilizing catalytic combustion. These contaminants trigger corrosion points, off spec product, and may also result in solids formation in chilly processes resembling LNG liquefaction.
Environment friendly utilisation of those pretreatments can increase the inlet fuel streams which are acceptable for LNG services, which may cut back the feedstock prices and permit biogas for use for carbon-neutral LNG. Usually, LNG feedstock necessities are lower than 4 ppmv H2S, 50 ppmv CO2, and fewer than 10 ppmv oxygen (O2). Dependable, modular pretreatment programs can considerably enhance profitability, viability, and sustainability of LNG programs by eliminating contaminants from feedstock, reducing feed-stock prices, and permitting biogas for use for carbon-neutral LNG.
Amine treating makes use of an aqueous answer of amine to take away H2S and CO2 from a fuel stream. This know-how is relevant for pure fuel, biogas, and even carbon seize from flue fuel streams. Quite a lot of amine options can be found which are chosen primarily based on strain, composition, contaminants, and outlet necessities.
In Determine 1, a typical amine system course of circulation diagram (PFD) is proven. Inlet fuel enters the underside part of the amine contactor, the place it contacts with adequate amine answer to satisfy the required outlet CO2 specs (usually lower than 50 ppmv). The fuel exiting the highest of the amine contactor(s) is routed to the candy fuel cooler and any condensed water is eliminated within the overhead fuel scrubber. Inlet filter separation/coalescing is offered upstream of the amine contactor.
The wealthy amine will enter the amine regeneration system, feeding into the amine flash tank. The amine flash tank is designed to supply 10 minutes. of residence time and features a hydrocarbon assortment sump. Any flashed vapours from the amine might be strain managed and routed to the skid edge for disposal.
The liquid amine from the amine flash tank flows via a 100 gpm capability charcoal filter after which via a 100% capability sock filter earlier than going to the lean/wealthy exchanger, the place the wealthy amine is heated to roughly 210°F. A degree management valve is positioned on the wealthy amine stream, downstream of the lean/wealthy exchanger, to manage the extent within the amine flash tank.
The wealthy amine and reflux stream mix to feed the highest stage of the amine nonetheless. The amine nonetheless can also be filled with structured packing. An air-cooled warmth exchanger is offered for the reflux condenser and a horizontal vessel serves because the reflux accumulator. The acid fuel vapours off the reflux accumulator might be strain managed and routed to the sting of the skid for ultimate disposal. Two reflux pumps (one working and one stand-by) are additionally offered. The amine nonetheless reboiler utilises a horizontal thermosiphon design, with a TEMA Sort BEM exchanger. Warmth for the amine nonetheless reboiler will usually be offered by 50 psig, saturated steam, or scorching oil.
The lean amine from the underside of the amine nonetheless flows into an equalised lean amine surge tank. This can be a horizontal vessel designed to supply 5 minutes of surge capability. The lean amine leaves this vessel and flows via the shell aspect of the lean/wealthy exchanger and is cooled to roughly 215°F.
The lean amine out of the lean/wealthy exchanger is then pumped to about 60 psig in one of many two amine booster pumps. From the amine booster pumps, the lean amine is cooled to 120°F within the lean amine cooler. The lean amine cooler is a shell and tube exchanger that makes use of cooling water.
The lean amine from the lean amine cooler is then fed to the amine circulation pumps. These pumps (one working, one stand-by) will pump the amine to a strain roughly 50 psi above that of the getting into fuel stream, for supply to the highest of the amine contactor(s).
O2 could be current in inlet fuel along with CO2 and H2S.The oxygen poses a number of issues to plant services, and removing of O2 is a crucial a part of pure fuel purification. Oxygen is corrosive and might cut back flowers and have an effect on downstream pro-cesses. Oxygen can also be included in LNG product specs so have to be eliminated to very low ranges.
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